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Human trafficking in Europe is a regional phenomenon of the wider practice of trade in humans for the purposes of various forms of coercive exploitation.Human trafficking has existed for centuries all over the world, and follows from the earlier practice of slavery, which differed from human trafficking in that it was legally recognized and accepted. The exploitation sometimes does not involve prostitution per se, but rather “survival sex”—the exchange of sexual services for a needed good or service. Men and boys are also forced by smugglers to navigate boats from Turkey to Greece and from Libya to Italy. Over half a million people entered Serbia between … Human trafficking was really not a term that was widely used in 1999 and 2001. 4.75%. Cultural taboos generally prevent the trafficking of young boys for sexual exploitation, however, some cases have been noted among Romanian children trafficked abroad. A family fleeing the war in Syria. Photo: Wikimedia Commons/Aleksandar Bogicevic. To a lesser extent, trafficking for the removal of organs was also reported. Within the Western Balkan countries prevails still a mentality that unfortunately doesn’t help and support our grounds of democratic countries, rule of law standards and the human right principles. 3 BALKANS DECLARATION on the suppression of trafficking and the exploitation of human beings1 Zagreb, 19 September 2013 The undersigned Civil Society Organizations (CSOs):2 1) Recalling ou States’ intenational and Euopean commitments to p event and combat Wartime Sexual Violence in Bosnia: The Human Trafficking Connection, Sexual Enslavement in the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Its Links to the Contemporary Concept of Trafficking in Persons, Croatian Defence Council member Josip Tolic, convicted him of involvement in the commission of genocide in Srebrenica, sentenced Lipovac to ten years and six months in prison, Male Rape Victims Confront the Bosnian War’s Last Taboo, Compensation Comes Late for Rape Survivors of Balkan Wars, Wartime Rape in Bosnia: A Daughter’s Search for Truth. As provided for in the Terms and Conditions of Use of Delta 8.7, the opinions expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of UNU or its partners. Human trafficking was really not a term that was widely used in 1999 and 2001. But usually, many trafficking victims remain unseen, operating in unsuspecting and suburban neighborhoods such as brothels, or in public and private locations, such as massage parlors, spas and strip clubs. Balkan human trafficking 'to rise' Organised gangs force women into prostitution. Human Trafficking, Human Security, and the Balkans: Amazon.it: Reich, Simon, Friman, H. Richard: Libri in altre lingue In September 2013, through the support of the IOM Development Fund, a seven-month needs assessment on the human trafficking situation in the Western Balkans (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina [BiH], UNSC resolution 1244-administered Kosovo, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia) was commissioned . Zarubica and his accomplices were recruiting women, mostly from Moldova, tricking them with attractive job offers that did not involve sex work and transferring them via Serbia to Italy, where they were forced into prostitution. Many migrants also fear retaliation by their traffickers, who often reside at the same accommodation centre as they do. Read Balkan Insight's Transitional Justice's story: Because they will be questioned about whether they ‘encouraged’, ‘consented to’ or ‘enjoyed’ the assault, victims will also continue not to report such crimes or abandon their attempts to seek justice. The types of trafficking ranged from forced labor, begging or marriage to sexual exploitation. He then changed his surname from Savanovic to Kojic, and in 2010, found himself in detention in Bosnia. With human trafficking and people smuggling linked to a number of other crimes, reinforced border controls led to the recovery of 10 firearms, 60kg of drugs and cash worth USD 200,000. Sex trafficking is a human right issue. Preventing human trafficking in the Western Balkans and supporting victims The challenge Despite the systems in place to combat human trafficking, the Western Balkan region (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo*, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia) is not sufficiently able to prevent trafficking in human beings or support (potential) victims. In 2010, Sasa Lipovac was arrested in Georgia on his way to Moscow based on a request from the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina. TRAFFICKING IN HUMAN BEINGS AND VIOLENCE: BALKAN PENINSULA AND THE VIOLENT ENTREPRENEUR MODEL Stanojoska Angelina, MSc in Criminology and Criminalistics 1 Ristov Ivan, MA in Criminology 2 angiest22@gmail.com ivan.ristov@yahoo.com Abstract Balkan Peninsula known by its violent history is home for crime groups working by the model of violence. “Organized crime groups prey on the vulnerable and help them cross borders illegally for hefty sums. Sometimes sex trafficking is highly visible, such as street prostitution. Shqip Macedonian Bos/Hrv/Srp. There are a few documented cases of the subsequent involvement of convicted war criminals in Bosnia in the trafficking of human beings. This article is a summary of a research report that was produced in cooperation with BIRN. I think that most UN officers considered these girls to be simply prostitutes. ↩ Yuliya V. Tverdova. The victims were construction workers, some 700 of them, mainly from Bosnia, but also from Serbia and North Macedonia. Though not an indication of prevalence in itself, specific details about a total of 69 potential trafficking cases involving one or more potential victims were identified in the course of our research, as well as 14 cases of deprivation of liberty for extortion­. The Balkans are a main channel for arms trafficking into Western Europe. The ICTY sentenced Lukic to life in prison for large-scale war crimes and crimes against humanity committed against Bosniak civilians in the town of Visegrad in 1992. The indictment said that three women, two of whom were 13 and 15 years old, were also kept effectively enslaved by the paramilitaries; forced to cook, clean houses, wash soldiers’ uniforms and do whatever they were told under the threat of murder. Dr Claire Healy is Trafficking Research Coordinator for ICMPD’s Anti-Trafficking Programme. Greek authorities identified 90 people who were presumed or identified as trafficked and presumably travelled via the Balkan route in 2015–2016. He was travelling back from Azerbaijan, where he had spent a couple of years operating as a part of a group involved in trafficking for labour exploitation. If you continue on this website, you will be providing consent to our use of cookies. 41.8%. Better understand human trafficking in crisis. Balkans: Operation Theseus busts human trafficking and migrant smuggling rings 89 victims of human trafficking rescued and 2,000 migrants detected. This project, which was established within the framework of the Balkans Stability Pact Task Force on Trafficking in Human Beings in July 2002, aims to create a regional database on trafficking. The Balkans are a main channel for arms trafficking into Western Europe. Sex trafficking of women and girls is prevalent, and men and boys are also affected. For these crimes, the Supreme Court of Republika Srpska sentenced Lipovac to ten years and six months in prison. Cases of human traffickers convicted in Serbia between 2005 and 2018 were analysed to find out whether the defendants had also participated in any war crimes. 1This study follows the Task Force on Trafficking in Human Beings created under the Stability Pact for South-Eastern Europe in referring to the Balkans and neighbouring countries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, Kosovo, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Slovenia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), henceforth … For example, Stanko Savanovic, alias Geza, was arrested in 2003 as a member of a criminal gang led by Milivoje Zarubica, nicknamed Puja, who was described by media at the time as “the Balkan master of human trafficking”. the Balkan route: Identifying victims of human trafficking in Serbia. Defence teams for trafficking perpetrators have used similar strategies. ‘Karaman’s House’, where women were subjected to torture and rape during the war in Foca in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The region of Western Balkans, has started a project call "Civic associations as a control mechanism in the fight against human trafficking in the Western Balkans"1. They add that the Balkans is one of the main transit points for people coming from all over the world in the hope of making it to western Europe. Sometimes, prosecutions have not included sexual violence charges in their indictments in order to focus on ‘larger’ crimes, as in the case of Bosnian Serb paramilitary leader Milan Lukic. Tolic was also found guilty of taking several Serb women from one detention facility and raping them. The research examined cases of sexual enslavement in the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the context of human trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation, since these two phenomena have many common characteristics. Set Up FREE Account Submit Release. In Serbia, Zarubica and his gang were never convicted of trafficking because it had not been criminalised at the time of the offence. Up until the 1990s, Kosovo Albanians served as couriers for Turkish gangs. But the Hague prosecutors decided not to try him for his role in committing rape and other crimes of sexual violence against women who were detained by his paramilitaries at a hotel near Visegrad. The aim of the Forum is to enable all relevant actors dealing with human trafficking (furthermore: HT) from five countries in the region namely, Albania, Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Macedonia to come together and jointly discuss various issues and concrete solutions with the potential to shape a new and innovative regional response to HT in the Western Balkans. Firstly, none of the accused initially confessed to these crimes. To help us improve Delta87.org, please share some information about yourself: Please help us understand how you use Delta87.org by answering four simple questions. Many Muslim Bosniak women were forcibly ‘baptised’ as Orthodox Christian, or their names were formally or informally changed to Serb names. HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN THE BALKANS: AN INSIDE REPORT JASNA VUJIN * I. Introduction Human trafficking is not a myth or something that is part of our volatile past. Edited by: H. Richard Friman and Simon ReichReviewer: Christopher Gunn, Greek authorities identified 90 people who were presumed or identified as trafficked and presumably travelled via the Balkan route in 2015–2016. Men and boys trafficked for forced labour are mainly exploited in agriculture in Iran, Turkey, Greece and Germany. The most extreme outcomes of this sort of sexual exploitation were (forced) marriages between the rapists and victims, as in the Skocic case. human trafficking human security and the balkans the security continuum Oct 06, 2020 Posted By Dean Koontz Publishing TEXT ID a71b3626 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library and transnational policies and practice the amazonin buy human trafficking human security and the balkans security continuum global politics in the modern age book “We’re a hub city, while other cities are just a transit city. They did not recieve any money from the trafficker T he city "plays a central role as a hotspot for criminal human trafficking organisations on the Balkans," the German federal police told the newspaper. The warrant for the arrest of Lipovac was issued in 2008 when he failed to appear before the Supreme Court in Banja Luka in second-instance proceedings relating to a war crime against Bosniak civilians in the village of Liskovac near Gradiska in northern Bosnia. What do these cases have in common? I think that most UN officers considered these girls to be simply prostitutes. In terms of conflict-related sexual violence, the Bosnian war is also known for so-called ‘rape camps’ and other forms of sexual slavery which sometimes involved effectively forced marriages, as well as forced pregnancies, a phenomenon which has been significantly less examined. But this lack of data should not be an excuse for a lack of action to prevent trafficking, particularly by allowing people to travel and transit regularly, thereby avoid dangerous routes. Only a small minority of the cases indicated had been officially identified as trafficking, or even considered as potential trafficking cases by the authorities or non-governmental actors. Afghan, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and Syrian people travelling the Eastern Mediterranean and Balkan routes are deprived of their liberty for extortion in Iran and Turkey and along the route in Greece, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Serbia, Croatia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina. IOM is committed to the principle that human and … In Bulgaria and Hungary there was no information on any potential, presumed or identified trafficking victims using the Balkan route. Lejla Kablar, author of a 2011 report by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) on “Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Labor Exploitation,” says that when human trafficking emerged in the Balkans, the profile of the trafficking victims was determined by the presence of foreign soldiers and aid workers. As none of the female victims exercised any control over their lives, their position can be considered slave-like. Although women and girls were the principal victims of sexual violence in the wars in Bosnia, Croatia and Kosovo, many incidents of sexual violence against men and boys have been recorded, documented and prosecuted alongside other war crimes. There is also a general lack of capacity among European authorities to identify potential trafficking cases among asylum applicants. In Greece, North Macedonia and Serbia during 2015–2016, the high numbers of people travelling prevented an adequate response to cases of potential trafficking. Before the ICTY started operating, crimes of sexual violence during wartime were not prosecuted by domestic courts. The contributors explore the economic dynamics of human trafficking in an era of … The Balkan route has been used by over a million people since 2015 to enter a European Union (EU) country and apply for asylum. The purpose was to collect and summarize stakeholder Trafficking cases often taken place outside the country that they are identified in, making it difficult for authorities to investigate cases. Some defendants claimed that they were in a relationship with the victim while keeping them in captivity. But the sexual enslavement of women and girls in the 1990s Bosnian war, although it has all the elements of trafficking, has never been discussed in the same context. Defence teams used this to perpetuate stereotypes of ‘ideal victims’ who look and act in specific ways, intimating that if they do not fit the ideal, their suffering should not be recognised. Serbia failing in fight against human trafficking Women and girls make up the vast majority of victims of human trafficking, often for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Sex trafficking is a human … The defence usually tried to question victims’ credibility using tactics such as alleging they were promiscuous in the period before or after the offence as proof that they consented to the sexual abuse. Human trafficking is endemic in the Balkans. Meanwhile, perpetrators and official bodies in former Yugoslav countries have denied, minimised or relativised sexual crimes committed during wartime. ↩ “Report of the Fourth World Conference on Women,” UN Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development, Beijing, 1995. This goes against courts’ standard practice, which is to list previous convictions in judgments, with their absence or presence acting as mitigating or aggravating factors when the sentence is decided. In addition, around 200 people who entered North Macedonia and 75 who entered Serbia during 2016–2017 were considered potential trafficking victims by the authorities, though there is no information about their profiles or about any follow-up. By January 2000, human trafficking had already been identified as a problem as Kosovo became a major destination for women and girls trafficked into forced prostitution. Only one woman and one girl who travelled the route were officially identified as trafficked in Serbia. By collecting and analyzing information gained from a wide range of sources, the project intends to foster a comprehensive understanding of human trafficking throughout the Balkans. ... trafficking women for enslaved sex, rape and even murder. After the takeover of the eastern Bosnian town of Foca by Bosnian Serb forces in the spring of 1992, Bosniak men were detained in the local prison, while women and children were held at various locations and repeatedly raped. LYON, France – Authorities in the Balkans have dealt a blow to organized crime groups by arresting 72 suspected traffickers and 167 migrant smugglers in an INTERPOL-led operation. We're sorry. This website was created and maintained with the financial support of the European Union. We have updated our cookie policy to reflect changes in the law on cookies and tracking technologies used on websites. Please check back at a later date to subscribe to our newsletter. According to Frontex, in 2015, the numbers of people arriving in Greece did not allow for effective screening, registration, identification and provision of assistance to those in need, exacerbated by the fact that people transited quickly through the country. We then analysed the interviews, together with statistics, legislative and policy documents and relevant literature. Elements of sexual slavery were included in the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina’s judgments convicting Croatian Defence Council member Josip Tolic of the inhumane treatment and murders of Serb civilians in detention facilities in Odzaci and Bosanski Brod in northern Bosnia. I am interested in the following policy areas (select all that apply): What is the main purpose for visiting/downloading research from Delta 8.7? They were also occasionally taken by soldiers to other private houses and flats, where they were raped, sexually exploited and abused. Sexual exploitation rarely came alone; it was combined with the labour exploitation of sexually abused women, who were required to clean, cook, do laundry and other tasks while in detention. The best-known case, and also the first judgment handed down by the ICTY that treated sexual enslavement and rape as crimes against humanity, was in the trial of Bosnian Serb Army commander Dragoljub Kunarac and his subordinates Radomir Kovac and Zoran Vukovic. In 2012, the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina convicted him of involvement in the commission of genocide in Srebrenica when he was a member of the Bosnian Serb Army’s 10th Reconnaissance Division, along with co-defendants Franc Kos, Vlastimir Gorijan and Zoran Goronja. The article and the research report were produced as part of BIRN’s Balkan Transitional Justice grant scheme, supported by the Matra Regional Rule of Law Programme. By Nick Hawton In Sarajevo Senior United Nations officials in Bosnia are warning of a dramatic increase in trafficked women passing through the Balkans and into western Europe. But although the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina adopted the ICTY’s approach, it continued to allow questions about victims’ sexual behaviour after the crime was committed. Sex trafficking is defined as transportation of persons by means of coercion, deception and/or force into exploitative and slavery-like conditions and is commonly associated with organized crime.. Germany has become a "center for the sexual exploitation of young women from Eastern Europe, as well as a sphere of activity for organized crime groups from around the world," The lack of attention to people travelling along the Balkan route (see map below) as potential victims of trafficking has prevented them from accessing the protection and justice that they are entitled to, as well as leading to a severe underestimation of the issue. The journey, via the choppy and often deadly waters of the Aegean Sea, is fraught with risk and many people find themselves exposed to exploitation, including human trafficking. This article is also available in: LYON, France – Authorities in the Balkans have dealt a blow to organized crime groups by arresting 72 suspected traffickers and 167 migrant smugglers in an INTERPOL-led operation. The purpose was to collect and summarize stakeholder At the same time, they were severely beaten, raped and sexually humiliated. Kunarac even claimed that the woman he raped actually seduced him. Stay updated with the latest research, visualizations, and analysis from Delta 8.7. Jelena Bjelica, “Trafficking in Human Beings in the Balkans,” Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, Belgrade (2002), 47. In February 2017, following a plea agreement, the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina sentenced Lipovac to a year and nine months in prison. Anette Brunovskis and Rebecca Surtees Vulnerability and exploitation along the Balkan route: Identifying victims of ... Human trafficking within a context of the massive and rapid movement of migrants and Trafficking in women makes up to 80 of the phenomenon with millions of victims effected by forced marriage, servitude, forced labor, those forced to operate in pornography and the sex industry, and even to become surrogate mothers. According to an indepth report on trafficking in the region by H. Richard Friman and Simon Reitch, in Bosnia and Herzegovina local women are trafficked out of the country, while women from elsewhere in the region were trafficked into the country for prostitution networks that focused on the growing international community as clientele. The Vilina Vlas hotel in Visegrad, where women and girls were detained and raped during the war. In September 2013, through the support of the IOM Development Fund, a seven-month needs assessment on the human trafficking situation in the Western Balkans (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina [BiH], UNSC resolution 1244-administered Kosovo, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia) was commissioned . Free movement across Europe, high poverty rates at home and lack of effective government policies have left thousands of Romanian women vulnerable to human trafficking networks. While there is an ongoing debate at an international policy level and among researchers as to whether deprivation of liberty for the purposes of extortion should be considered human trafficking, the findings of our study presented the modus operandi of the perpetrators, the experiences of the victims and the existence of acts and means, and showed that extortion involves the abuse of a person’s rights in order to obtain a financial or material benefit. ↩ “Report of the Fourth World Conference on Women,” UN Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development, Beijing, 1995. When compelled to admit that ‘contacts of a sexual nature’ occurred, the perpetrators claimed that this was not violent, but consensual. The action on “Preventing and Combating Human Trafficking in Bosnia and Herzegovina” is implemented within the joint programme of the European Union and the Council of Europe “Horizontal Facility for the Western Balkans and Turkey 2019-2022”. Balkans: Operation Theseus busts human trafficking and migrant smuggling rings 89 victims of human trafficking rescued and 2,000 migrants detected. The deadly effects of this trade were brought to the world’s attention when, in 2015, jihadists equipped with Yugoslav-era assault rifles from Serbia killed more than 130 people on the streets of Paris and in the Bataclan theatre. Research for a new report entitled ‘Sexual Enslavement in the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Its Links to the Contemporary Concept of Trafficking in Persons’ examined verdicts from trials held at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, ICTY and at domestic courts in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia. The action on “Preventing and Combating Human Trafficking in Bosnia and Herzegovina” is implemented within the joint programme of the European Union and the Council of Europe “Horizontal Facility for the Western Balkans and Turkey 2019-2022”. There are a few documented cases of the subsequent involvement of convicted war criminals in Bosnia in the trafficking of human beings. “This impressive volume, which brings together a broad range of scholars and practitioners, is one of the first and only books on human trafficking trends and dynamics in the Balkans. Map by NEXUS Institute: The Balkan Route Along the way and at various stages of their journeys and flights, many of these migrants and refugees are exposed to different risks, vulnerabilities and exploitation, including, in some cases, human trafficking. The underlying conditions enabling government and civil society to prevent human trafficking and support its victims have been improved. Foca in Bosnia and Herzegovina, where women were held prisoner and raped during the war. In Serbia, crimes amounting to sexual enslavement were included in the Skocic case, which was prosecuted by the War Crimes Department of the Higher Court in Belgrade. Human Trafficking, Human Security, and the Balkans (The Security Continuum) (English Edition) eBook: Friman, H. Richard, Reich, Simon: Amazon.it: Kindle Store Three of the six victims married their captors. Social workers, police and other professionals who work with people on the move on identifying trafficking and protecting vulnerable groups also lack proper training. Instead, gang members got symbolic prison sentences for a variety of crimes, including facilitation of prostitution, rape, document forgery and depriving people of their liberty. human trafficking human security and the balkans the security continuum Oct 26, 2020 Posted By Frank G. Slaughter Publishing TEXT ID a71b3626 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library this context that south eastern europe and especially the western balkan region has emerged as a nexus point in human trafficking human trafficking human security and the Jelena Bjelica, “Trafficking in Human Beings in the Balkans,” Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, Belgrade (2002), 47. Some of those involved are also exploited by the same groups in other forced criminal activities, especially drug smuggling and sale. The defence usually insisted that the victims consented and that the perpetrators did not force them to have sexual intercourse. 2009] HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN THE BALKANS 273 Looking through the international legislative history, it is apparent that finding one adequate and globally accepted definition for women trafficking went through so many phases until the adoption of the Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its Supplemental Protocol: the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, … Throughout 2018, we conducted research in countries along the Balkan route: Greece, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Serbia and Hungary, as well as in Germany and Italy. Three other girls who had been captured earlier in the war were kept under similar conditions. Photo: Wikimedia Commons/ICTY. Civil society organisations have accused the Bucharest government of allowing Romania to remain the country of origin of most victims of trafficking in the EU. In August 1993, Lipovac, together with four other people, went to Liskovac and brutally killed three members of the Rizvanovic family, wounded a four-year-old and raped a 20-year-old woman several times. human trafficking in Serbia Anette Brunovskis and Rebecca Surtees Vulnerability and exploitation along the Balkan route: Identifying victims of ... have moved through the Balkans (often referred to as “the Balkan route”) in their attempt to reach and resettle in northern Europe. Migrants are reportedly hidden in trucks in and near Timisoara in order to smuggle them across the border to Hungary, located roughly an hour by car from the city, and then further West, across the Austrian border and into Germany. Its contents are the sole responsibility of BIRN and do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Union. Interestingly, judgments in cases for one type of offence do not mention the convictions for the other type of offence. 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