A big part of that is actually understanding how your solar panel system works. tracking array — A photovoltaic (PV) array that follows the path of the sun to maximize the solar radiation incident on the PV surface. direct insolation — Sunlight falling directly upon a collector. The measure of the resistance of a given conductor is the electromotive force needed for a unit current flow. Article 690, which details specific installation codes for solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, should be consulted for all. cutoff voltage — The voltage levels (activation) at which the charge controller disconnects the photovoltaic array from the battery or the load from the battery. n-type silicon — Silicon material that has been doped with a material that has more electrons in its atomic structure than does silicon. Sun is the source of solar energy and this energy cannot be destroyed. photovoltaic (PV) device — A solid-state electrical device that converts light directly into direct current electricity of voltage-current characteristics that are a function of the characteristics of the light source and the materials in and design of the device. acceptor — A dopant material, such as boron, which has fewer outer shell electrons than required in an otherwise balanced crystal structure, providing a hole, which can accept a free electron. Test results are subject to a list of defined requirements. boron (B) — The chemical element commonly used as the dopant in photovoltaic device or cell material. Also, the earth or ground in a cathodic protection system. This factor results in a slightly smaller photovoltaic array. kerf — The width of a cut used to create wafers from silicon ingots, often resulting in the loss of semiconductor material. Often used as a front contact or one component of a heterojunction solar cell. sputtering — A process used to apply photovoltaic semiconductor material to a substrate by a physical vapor deposition process where high-energy ions are used to bombard elemental sources of semiconductor material, which eject vapors of atoms that are then deposited in thin layers on a substrate. In CSP systems, mirrors focus sunlight on a heat-transfer fluid. Solar energy is expensive on a large scale, but running lights and small appliances are now inexpensive. deep-cycle battery — A battery with large plates that can withstand many discharges to a low state-of-charge. waveform — The shape of the phase power at a certain frequency and amplitude. The operating point is dependent on the load or the batteries connected to the output terminals of the array. specific gravity — The ratio of the weight of the solution to the weight of an equal volume of water at a specified temperature. It protects these solar cells from thermal destruction in case of total or partial shading of individual solar cells while other cells are exposed to full light. power factor (PF) — The ratio of actual power being used in a circuit, expressed in watts or kilowatts, to the power that is apparently being drawn from a power source, expressed in volt-amperes or kilovolt-amperes. solar noon — The time of the day, at a specific location, when the sun reaches its highest, apparent point in the sky. temperature factors — It is common for three elements in photovoltaic system sizing to have distinct temperature corrections: a factor used to decrease battery capacity at cold temperatures; a factor used to decrease PV module voltage at high temperatures; and a factor used to decrease the current carrying capability of wire at high temperatures. low voltage disconnect hysteresis — The voltage difference between the low voltage disconnect set point and the voltage at which the load will be reconnected. underground feeder (UF) — May be used for photovoltaic array wiring if sunlight resistant coating is specified; can be used for interconnecting balance-of-system components but not recommended for use within battery enclosures. Opposite of diffuse insolation. May or may not have storage, but most stand-alone systems require batteries or some other form of storage. input voltage — This is determined by the total power required by the alternating current loads and the voltage of any direct current loads. Also it is mostly used to provide energy to houses and public buildings. that follows the path of the sun to maximize the solar radiation incident on the PV surface. In some states, you can sell your SRECs for additional revenue. photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) system — A photovoltaic system that, in addition to converting sunlight into electricity, collects the residual heat energy and delivers both heat and electricity in usable form. cleavage of lateral epitaxial films for transfer (CLEFT) — A process for making inexpensive gallium arsenide (GaAs) photovoltaic cells in which a thin film of GaAs is grown atop a thick, single-crystal GaAs (or other suitable material) substrate and then is cleaved from the substrate and incorporated into a cell, allowing the substrate to be reused to grow more thin-film GaAs. work function — The energy difference between the Fermi level and vacuum zero. Periodic, controlled charging at voltages that produce gassing will mix the electrolyte. This term is more common to system designers than it is to the battery industry where capacity usually refers to ampere-hours. Solar energy, radiation from the Sun capable of producing heat, causing chemical reactions, or generating electricity. P-I-N — A semiconductor photovoltaic (PV) device structure that layers an intrinsic semiconductor between a p-type semiconductor and an n-type semiconductor; this structure is most often used with amorphous silicon PV devices. It also can refer to scheduling of imports or exports of energy into or out of a balancing area. Fresnel lens — An optical device that focuses light like a magnifying glass; concentric rings are faced at slightly different angles so that light falling on any ring is focused to the same point. NOCT is used to estimate the nominal operating temperature of a module in its working environment. . This keeps the current at levels where switches and other components are readily available. Output or load in a semiconductor that can be generated by and converted to of variously oriented,,. 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