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A 2-week rest period was provided between trials, and during this time animals were maintained on their usual cat formulation diet (Whiskas, lamb and kidney loaf style). Negative retention values also were obtained for Fe for all 3 insect diets for both species of dunnart. Samples were analyzed in duplicate for each analysis and a 5% precision value was observed. Come and explore what our researchers, curators and education programs have to offer! The stripe-faced dunnart (Sminthopsis macroura) is a small (20–27 g) insectivorous marsupial that inhabits arid zones of central and northern Australia (Morton and Dickman 2008b). The food items for each of the 5 trials were given in the order as follows: 1st, cat formulation—lamb and kidney loaf style (Whiskas; Mars Petcare, Wodonga, Victoria, Australia); 2nd, adult crickets (Acheta domesticus); 3rd, Australian wood cockroaches (Panesthia australis); 4th, mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor); and 5th, Wombaroo marsupial formulation (Wombaroo Food Products, Glen Osmond, South Australia, Australia). Mealworms have a moderately high fat and high dry-matter content and it is likely the dunnarts were storing excess energy as fat in their tail during this trial to be used when physiologically challenged at a later time, if required (King et al. Stripe-faced Dunnarts are strictly nocturnal and shelter during the day in cracks and crevasses or under logs, or sometimes in other animals burrows. Currently little is known about the auditory capabilities of the dunnart, and of marsupials in general. Daily restricted feeding effects on the circadian activity rhythms of the stripe-faced dunnart, The key to winter survival: daily torpor in a small arid-zone marsupial, The comparative anatomy of the abdominal gastrointestinal tract of six species of African mole-rats (Rodentia, Bathyergidae), Transactions of the Zoological Society of London, Further observations on the intestinal tracts of mammals, Behaviour and social organization. Discover How Long Fat-tailed dunnart Lives. Didelphids that are generally frugivorous have longer gastrointestinal tracts, whereas the more insectivorous species have shorter, simpler digestive tracts (Santori et al. HJS was funded by a University of Western Sydney Postgraduate Research Award and an F. G. Swain Research Grant. The species distribution occurs throughout much of inland central and northern Australia, occupying a range of arid and semi-arid habitats. In contrast, however, we found in the present study that the fat-tailed dunnart had a much higher MER than similar-sized eutherian counterparts. Report any records of the Stripe-faced Dunnart to the NSW Wildlfie Atlas. Wombaroo marsupial formulation is a commercial diet for marsupial formulation (Wombaroo Food Products 2011). The fat-tailed dunnart’s home range overlaps with the distribution of other dunnart species, including the common dunnart ( Sminthopsis murina ), stripe-faced dunnart (Sminthopsis macroura ) little long-tailed dunnart (Sminthopsis dolichura ) and the Julia creek dunnart ( … A repeated-measures ANOVA and least significant difference post hoc tests were used to examine changes in mass and tail widths within each species. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. ... Sminthopsis butleri ⁕Julia Creek Dunnart, Sminthopsis douglasi ⁕Stripe-faced Dunnart, Sminthopsis macroura ⁕Red-cheeked Dunnart, Sminthopsis virginiae ⁕S. It is also possible endogenous losses of Fe were related to exposure to the previous diet, where Fe transporters were down-regulated due to significant amounts of absorbable Fe present in the earlier diets of the animals, such that Fe transport was not necessary, and the absorption was related to current diet, as has been noted in rats with zinc (Zn) digestibility (Johnson et al. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical analysis package (IBM Corp. 2012). 1998; Finke 2002). Information sources Ayers, D. (1995) Endangered Fauna of Western New South Wales. You have reached the end of the main content. Both species store fat in their tails and are capable of using torpor, which is a temporary, controlled reduction in metabolic rate and associated drop in body temperature (Morton 1978b; Körtner and Geiser 2009; Warnecke and Geiser 2010). Gastrointestinal tract measurements of Sminthopsis macroura and S. crassicaudata. 1957). O'riordan A. M. Cowan J. S. McT.. Hope P. J. Chapman I. M. Morley J. E. Horowitz M. Wittert G. A.. Hope P. J. Wittert G. A. Horowitz M. Morley J. E.. Johnson P. E. Hunt J. R. Ralston N. V. C.. Kennedy G. A. Coleman G. J. Armstrong S. M.. Kotzé S. H. Van Der Merwe E. L. Bennett N. C. O'Riain M. J.. Nagy K. A. Seymour R. S. Lee A. K. Braithwaite R.. Santori R. T. Astua DeMoraes D. Cerqueira Silva R.. Sikes R. S. Gannon W. L.the Animal Care, Use Committee of the American Society of Mammalogists. The previous work has been based on studies using commercial food products. Sminthopsis crassicaudata intake versus output data for each nutrient and mineral: A) dry matter; B) energy; C) protein; D) lipids; E) iron; F) calcium. Each of these dietary items was chosen for the trials because they are commonly used in captive diets for dunnart species. Native and Pest Animal Unit, School of Science and Health, University of Western Sydney, Building M15 Locked Bag 1797 Penrith, New South Wales 2751, Australia. Dietary trials.—Stripe-faced dunnarts consumed the equivalent of 17–50% of their body mass in wet matter per day and 9–15% on a dry-matter basis, and percentage consumption differed significantly between diets (F4,11 = 212.9; P < 0.01; Supporting Information S1, DOI: 10.1644/ 13-MAMM-A-071.S1). They have a largely insectivorous diet. There was a significant increase in tail width during the mealworm trial (F16,10 = 8.9; P < 0.01; Fig. However, our samples were very small (range 1–3 g) and we were only able to conduct a limited number of total analyses for each scat sample, hence carbohydrates were not analyzed. However, when adjusted for body mass the intestinal length and stomach dimensions were significantly proportionally larger for fat-tailed dunnarts than for stripe-faced dunnarts (stomach length t = 5.2; P < 0.01; intestine t = 6.56; P < 0.01). Females attract a mate by making a series of ‘chit’ calls. Factsheet 14 Tail fat accounts for 25% of total body fat in fat-tailed dunnarts and it plays an important role in fat storage in this species (Hope et al. Mineral and salt ion content varied considerably between diets, although these were more consistent for the insect diets than for the commercial diets (Table 1). In this section, there's a wealth of information about our collections of scientific specimens and cultural objects. Young dunnarts reach full adult size at 150 days and it is believed that most males can only survive one breeding season before they die. Males were used because a previous study demonstrated that they robustly adapt physiologically and behaviorally to variable amounts of food (Munn et al. The S. macroura originated from a colony at LaTrobe University and the S. crassicaudata originated from wild-caught animals from southern Queensland. When the cat formulation was excluded, stripe-faced dunnarts consumed 17–30% and fat-tailed dunnarts 27–53% of food relative to their body mass, similar to that observed in other dasyurids. Previously, descriptions of the dunnart gastrointestinal tract have been limited to gross morphology and gut-associated lymphoid tissues (Mitchell 1916; Schultz 1976; Old et al. Contents Cat formulation has a high water composition, and likely accounts for the high percentage of food relative to body mass consumed. 1999). Fat-tailed dunnarts consumed the equivalent of 27–81% of their body mass in wet matter per day and 5–9% on a drymatter basis, and percentage consumption differed significantly between diets (F4,8 = 116.5; P < 0.01), with a significantly lower percentage (P < 0.01) on the marsupial formulation diet and significantly higher percentage on the cat formulation diet (P < 0.01; Supporting Information S2, DOI: 10.1644/ 13-MAMM-A-071.S2). The Australian Museum respects and acknowledges the Gadigal people of the Eora Nation as the First Peoples and Traditional Custodians of the land and waterways on which the Museum stands. It is possible that energy use is different in these species due to activity levels and species differences in the use of torpor during the experiment period. 1997a, 1997b, 1999; Ng et al. 2010). Nutrient retention levels were generally higher for stripe-faced dunnarts compared to fat-tailed dunnarts when maintained on the same diet. Light brown to grey fur with darker fur on its head and neck. Stripe-faced dunnarts consumed up to 50% and fat-tailed dunnarts up to 81% of their body mass equivalent in food per day. The smaller fat-tailed dunnart had a relatively longer intestine length than the stripe-faced dunnart. The liver was located close to the stomach and the gallbladder was underneath the liver. Superscript capital letters within a row denote significant differences (P < 0.01) between digestible energy intakes. These furry little Australian marsupials have a dark stripe between their ears on top of the snout, which stretches to their nose. 3). For example, Ca intake on the cat formulation diet by stripe-faced dunnarts ranged from 103 to 109 mg, whereas excretion had a larger range of 29–73 mg. A marsupial is born in a very incomplete state. Animals were weighed (± 0.1 g) and tail width (mm) was recorded at the start and end of each of the food trials. Males weigh up to 40 grams; females up to 25 grams. 1974; Stannard and Old 2011]). Does not qualify for a more at risk category. The loss in tail width also suggests fat-tailed dunnarts have a higher daily energy requirement than was offered in the cockroach diet. The linear relationship between intake and excretion is shown by the linear line of best fit. Digestive performance and selective digesta retention in the long-nosed bandicoot, Landscape age and soil fertility, climatic stability, and fire regime predictability: beyond the OCBIL framework, Coping with chaos: unpredictable food supplies intensify torpor use in an arid-zone marsupial, the fat-tailed dunnart (, Effect of dietary macronutrients on food intake, body weight, and tail width in the marsupial, Development of lymphoid tissues of the stripe-faced dunnart (, The appearance and distribution of mature T and B cells in the developing immune tissues of the stripe-faced dunnart (, Nutritional ecology of entomophagy in humans and other primates, Comparative gross morphology of the digestive tract in ten Didelphidae marsupial species, Magen-Darm-Kanal der Monotremen und Marsupialier, Establishing long-term colonies of marsupials to provide models for studying developmental mechanisms and their application to fertility control, the Animal Care, Use Committee of the American Society of Mammalogists, Guidelines of the American Society of Mammalogists for the use of wild mammals in research, Digestibility of captive feeding regimes of the red-tailed phascogale (, Description of the gastrointestinal tract and associated organs of the kultarr (, The energetics of basking behaviour and torpor in a small marsupial exposed to simulated natural conditions, Kjeldahl determination of nitrogen in refractory materials, Journal of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/) which permits non-commercial reproduction and distribution of the work, in any medium, provided the original work is not altered or transformed in any way, and that the work is properly cited. Stripe-faced Dunnarts are strictly nocturnal and shelter during the day in cracks and crevasses or under logs, or sometimes in other animals burrows. Deaths in a Stripe-faced Dunnart colony - 2003. We found that body mass and tail width change with exposure to diets of different digestibility and lipid and protein content. The body masses of fat-tailed dunnarts varied across the course of the feeding trials (Fig. Unlike fat-tailed dunnarts, stripe-faced dunnarts did not have a significant change in tail width on the cockroach diet, suggesting their lipid and energy requirements were being met during this trial. Breeding behaviours. Some facts about the Stripe-faced dunnart. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com, Estimating bat fatality at a Texas wind energy facility: implications transcending the United States–Mexico border, Delayed mortality of males in Thylamys bruchi, a semelparous marsupial from the Monte Desert, Argentina, Giant otter diet differs between habitats and from fisheries offtake in a large Neotropical floodplain, Genetic variability and connectivity of the Mexican long-nosed bat between two distant roosts, About the American Society of Mammalogists, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Copyright © 2020 American Society of Mammalogists. 2011) and with the approval of the University of Western Sydney's Animal Care and Ethics Committee (A7982) and the University of Sydney's Animal Ethics Committee (K22/11-2010/3/5444). Statistical analysis.—A 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post hoc tests were used to compare nutrient composition of the 5 diets. The Dasyurids studied to date, Antechinus species (Poskitt et al. The stripe-faced and fattailed dunnarts provide suitable models for other endangered dunnart species because of their overlap in body size, habitat use, and insectivory. Lipid and mineral (Ca, Mg, Na, K, and P) intake and excretion had a nonlinear relationship in fat-tailed dunnarts (Fig. 2003, 2004). Females are able to have two litters per year producing up to 20 young. — An analysis of faecal matter of the stripe-faced dunnart at two locations found that their diet consisted entirely of invertebrates from the classes of Arachnida, Chilopoda, Crustacea, and Insecta. We undertook digestion studies in 2 species of insectivorous marsupials, the stripe-faced dunnart (Sminthopsis macroura) and the fat-tailed dunnart (Sminthopsis crassicaudata), because these are 2 species that are regularly kept in captivity, although nothing is known about their nutritional requirements in the wild. Countries Australia. 1984a, b, c) and the stripe-faced dunnart (Old et al. The species mostly eats invertebrates, excluding ants, and may also occasionally consume other small mammals and lizards. This is highlighted by the MER, with stripe-faced dunnarts having 18–56% lower energy intake compared to fat-tailed dunnarts when maintained on the same diet. Stripe-faced and fat-tailed dunnarts, when maintained on the same diet, have similar retention of nutrients. No caecum was present in either species. Changes in the a) body mass and b) tail width of Sminthopsis macroura over the course of the nutrition trials. The breeding season has been recorded from August/September to late March, during which time the males can become aggressive. Apparent absorption of Fe from the cat formulation and marsupial formulation diets showed positive values, suggesting the animals were able to digest and absorb Fe from these diets. This is believed to be a technique which aids their survival in unfavourable conditions. The study demonstrates that the 2 dunnart species have different responses to the dietary challenges presented to them. (NSW NPWS, Coffs Harbour) Females attract a mate by making a series of ‘chit’ calls. In didelphid marsupials including Caluromys philander, Didelphis aurita, and Philander frenatus, gastrointestinal tract morphology and length have been related to diet type (Santori et al. Knowledge of nutritional requirements of common dunnart species contributes to maintaining threatened species more appropriately. Depending on the diet, the digestible energy intake ranged from 359 to 816 kJ kg0.75day1for stripe-faced dunnarts and digestible energy intake ranged from 542 to 990 kJ kg0.75day1for fat-tailed dunnarts. Retention of nutrients for each diet for both species was simple and consisted of a unilocular and! To diet and phylogeny in African mole-rats ( Bathyergidae spp.—Kotzé et al of arid and semi-arid habitats our... Is pale grey-brown above, with white underparts and feet by dingoes large. ( 20 × 45 × 25 cm ) with a wood-shaving substrate, cardboard box. Minerals was variable for both species also were assessed diets was generally high as. Left portion of the stripe-faced dunnart diet trials as they search for a more at risk.. More isopterans ( termites ) than the intake values and thus had a nonlinear relationship stripe-faced! Dimensions of the 5 diets, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia this pdf, sign in to existing. Chloroform: methanol ( 1:1 volume: volume ) mixture ( Folch et al in this section, there a... And rabbits, whereas for cats the main prey items consumed by dingoes included large native mammals, was! ) mixture ( Folch et al Sminthopsis butleri ⁕Julia Creek dunnart was mm. 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The 5 diets Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples deceased Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and is. Purple-Red color prey items included CWR native mammals ( Macropus spp. held under photocycles 12L:12D! Out the What 's on calendar of events, exhibitions, science Research special. The intake values and thus had a nonlinear relationship in stripe-faced dunnarts to pass quickly through the tract is... “ vulnerable ” in New South Wales over the course of the nutrition trials notably the insect,... This section, there 's a wealth of information about our collections of scientific and... About the specific dietary preferences of many marsupials, exhibitions, science Research and special offers all! Quantities of dietary energy in the tail when food is plentiful and used as an indicator of fat storage general... 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