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al. Qualitative analysis was used to examine the interview transcripts and derive fundamental categories that summarized the underlying thematic structure. Both approaches are legitimate but require sufficient detail and contextualization. The case study is a descriptive qualitative methodology that is used as a tool to study something specific in a complex phenomenon. Research decisions: Quantitative and qualitative perspectives (2nd ed.). In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds. Qualitative data coding . However, generalization to populations is not appropriate or desirable in most case studies. Data. Research methods in language learning. Sampling. This implies that qualitative data analysis of case studies is complex and requires flexibility, experience, and skill. For more information on how TESOL International Association uses cookies, please read our privacy policy. There need to be a framework that can help facilitate analysis of the data. According to Merriam (1998, 2009), qualitative case studies can be defined as processes, a unit of analysis, or as the output or product of the research. Political Science and International Relations, https://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412957397.n277, Case Study Research in Business and Management, Deductive-Nomological Model of Explanation, Paradigm Plurality in Case Study Research, Research Questions, Types of Retrospective Case Study, Contentious Issues in Case Study Research, Computer-Based Analysis of Qualitative Data: ATLAS.ti, Computer-Based Analysis of Qualitative Data: CAITA (Computer-Assisted Interpretive Textual Analysis), Computer-Based Analysis of Qualitative Data: Kwalitan, Computer-Based Analysis of Qualitative Data: MAXQDA 2007, Computer-Based Analysis of Qualitative Data: NVIVO, Comparing the Case Study With Other Methodologies, Conceptual Model in a Qualitative Research Project, Conceptual Model in a Quantitative Research Project, CCPA – Do Not Sell My Personal Information. a statement of the study's purpose and the theoretical context, a detailed description of the case(s) and explanation of decisions related to sampling and selection, context of the study and case history, where relevant, issues of access to the site/participants and the relationship between you and the research participant (case), evidence that you obtained informed consent, that the participants' identities and privacy are protected, and, ideally, that participants benefited in some way from taking part in the study, methods of data collection and analysis, either manual or computer-based data management and analysis (see Weitzman & Miles, 1995), or other equipment and procedures used, findings, which may take the form of major emergent themes, developmental stages, or an in-depth discussion of each case in relation to the research questions; and illustrative quotations or excerpts and sufficient amounts of other data to establish the validity and credibility of the analysis and interpretations, a discussion of factors that might have influenced the interpretation of data in undesired, unanticipated, or conflicting ways, a consideration of the connection between the case study and larger theoretical and practical issues in the field. ), Talking to learn: Conversations in second language acquisition (pp. Read on to learn more differences between qualitative and quantitative analysis in Data Science. Qualitative case study methodology provides tools for researchers to study complex phenomena within their contexts. 137-174). (1995). Qualitative Case Study Guidelines Saša Baškarada Joint and Operations Analysis Division Defence Science and Technology Organisation DSTO-GD-0773 ABSTRACT This report presents guidelines for conducting qualitative case studies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. The main feature of the grounded theory, which differentiates it from other qualitative data analysis methods is its focus on theory development . Qualitative data analysis: A sourcebook of new methods (2nd ed.). Context. Developing basic conversational ability in a second language: A case study of an adult learner of Portuguese. The richness of case studies is related to the amount of detail and contextualization that is possible when only one or a small number of focal cases and issues are analyzed. However, including multiple cases limits the depth with which each case may be analyzed and also has implications for the structure and length of the final report. 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London: Longman. A case study is a research method common in social science. Once a satisfactory solution has been achieved the results of the QCA study can then be published or used in other ways. In N. Wolfson & E. Judd (Eds. Case study research in TESOL and second language acquisition (SLA) has its origins in psychology and linguistics (e.g., Hatch, 1978), with a focus on the development of L2 syntax, morphology, phonology, and so on, as analyzed by an ostensibly objective researcher. Duff, P. (2002). The study focuses on all aspects and dimensions of the case in question, aimed at illustrating viewpoints or theories rather than making comparisons. ), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. A quantitative analysis of the data follows in Chapter 5. How thematic analysis works. Establishing a trusting relationship with research participants, using multiple elicitation tasks (data collection procedures), obtaining adequate relevant background information about case participants and sites, and having access to or contact with the case over a period of time are, in general, all highly desirable. Nike inc case study questions. As in ethnography, bringing together (triangulating) multiple perspectives, methods, and sources of information (e.g., from interviews, observations, field notes, self-reports or think-aloud protocols, tests, transcripts, and other documents) adds texture, depth, and multiple insights to an analysis and can enhance the validity or credibility of the results. To exempilfy this, we were able Young L2 learners or others who are not highly proficient in their L2 may not have the maturity or the linguistic competence to convey their perspectives easily; in some cases, an assistant who can speak the participant's L1 to explain the research purposes and elicit the participant's views in their L1 may be helpful, depending on the focus of the study (Duff, in press). Interaction, acculturation and the acquisition of communicative competence: A case study of an adult. Case study research may feature single cases or multiple cases (e.g., often two to four). ), The Oxford handbook of applied linguistics (pp. Consider alternate explanations, and account for results that run contrary to the themes that emerge or for differences among triangulated sources. The use of qualitative content analysis in case study research pdf rating. This article presents the case study as a type of qualitative research. ), Sociolinguistics and second language acquisition (pp. The case study approach allows in-depth, multi-faceted explorations of complex issues in their real-life settings. Qualitative methods include ethnography, grounded theory, discourse analysis, and interpretative phenomenological analysis. New York: Longman. (1978). ), Research methods in language and education (pp. Qualitative Case Study Guidelines . In the qualitative phase, I analyzed the data … Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Please choose from an option shown below. This paper tried to explore and discuss the possibilities of using qualitative content analysis in case study research. Data reduction may include quantification or other means of data aggregation and reduction, including the use of data matrices, tables, and figures (Miles & Huberman, 1994). Case study research produces vast amounts of data. Establishing the significance or importance of themes or findings is crucial; the discussion should ideally link these themes explicitly to larger theoretical and practical issues. Silverman, D. (2000). More recently, TESOL case studies have adopted the more subjective and interpretive stance typical of case studies in education and other fields (Gall, Borg, & Gall, 1996; Johnson, 1992; Stake, 1994, 1995), with less emphasis on the acquisition of discrete linguistic elements and more emphasis on such issues as learners' and teachers' identities, skill development and its consequences for learners, teachers' professional development experiences, and the implementation of language policies in programs and countries. Be cautious about drawing unwarranted inferences because of the small sample size, particularly if the case is not typical of others in the same set. This article presents some guidance by cataloging nine different techniques for case selection: typical, diverse, extreme, deviant, influential, crucial, pathway, most similar, and most different. Acknowledging multiple realities in qualitative case studies, as is now commonly done, involves discerning the various perspectives of the researcher, the case/participant, and others, which … Palys, T. (1997). Usually qualitative case studies employ a qualitative inquiry approach, so could have exploratory, interpretive, or descriptive questions. Computer programs for qualitative data analysis: A software sourcebook. Identification of the case. Schmidt, R. (1983). Purposeful sampling is generally used in case study research; therefore, explain sampling procedures and case selection, and the defining characteristics and typicality or atypicality of the case: Note whether the case in question is a deviant or extreme case, a critical case, a convenience case, a politically significant case, and so on (Creswell, 1998; Miles & Huberman, 1994). In R. R. Day (Ed. Schmidt, R. W., & Frota, S. N. (1986). It also indicates that if the researcher is starting from a quantitative database, then methods for finding influential outliers can be used. Case study research may feature single cases or multiple cases (e.g., often two to four). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Case study research in applied linguistics. Draw data either from one primary source (e.g., oral interviews, journals, or essays) or from multiple sources. Johnson, D. M. (1992). In R. A. Kaplan (Ed. Provide sufficient evidence for your claims or interpretations to make them clear, credible, and convincing to others. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. Due to conflicting epistemological presuppositions and the complexity inherent in qualitative case-based studies, scientific rigor can be difficult to demonstrate, and any resulting findings can be difficult tojustify. Hatch, E. Copy and paste the following HTML into your website. Stake, R. E. (1995). Case study research can mean single and multiple case studies, can include quantitative evidence, relies on multiple sources of evidence, and benefits from the prior development of theoretical propositions. London: Routledge. Case studies are the most popular qualitative methods of data analysis.A case study method focuses on the in depth study of a single, usually complex series of events, that make up a case. Case study research: Design and methods. Second language acquisition: A book of readings. Please note that some file types are incompatible with some mobile and tablet devices. Unlike ethnographic research, case studies do not necessarily focus on cultural aspects of a group or its members. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Background: There is often little detail in case study research about how data were analysed. Doing qualitative research: A practical handbook. (1998). Data in SLA studies may be somewhat more restricted (either interviews, tests, writing samples, think-aloud protocols, or grammaticality judgments), and the analytic focus may be narrower and more technical as well, such as the development of linguistic or rhetorical structures in oral or written L2 production. Although widely used, the qualitative case study method is not well understood. Quantitative data analysis includes information about quantities and numbers, as far as qualitative data applies to things which can be observed but not measured. Abstract . Approaches to research in second language learning. In TESOL, a case typically refers to a person, either a learner or a teacher, or an entity, such as a school, a university, a classroom, or a program (see Faltis, 1997; Johnson, 1992; Nunan, 1992). Most browsers automatically accept cookies, but if you prefer, you can opt out by changing your browser settings. newspaper articles, photographs, official records). Step 2: Identifying themes, patterns and relationships.Unlike quantitative methods, in qualitative data analysis there are no universally applicable techniques that can be applied to generate findings.Analytical and critical thinking skills of researcher plays significant role in data analysis in qualitative studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Aim: To illustrate an approach to data analysis in qualitative case study methodology. The data are generally nonnumerical. Grounded theory is one of the most popular qualitative strategies that leads to a general, abstract theory of a process or action grounded in the views of people that participate in a study. She suggested that qualitative case studies can be further distinguished by special features: Particularistic, descriptive, and heuristic. Even when conducting a series of case studies, comparisons between two or more case… To do a case study in qualitative research, carefully select a specific subject and use appropriate data collection methods and analysis to attempt to understand the subject and surrounding circumstances -- also called context. In N. Hornberger & D. Corson (Eds. There are different types of qualitative research methods like an in-depth interview, focus groups, ethnographic research, content analysis, case study research that are usually used. However, it is important that comprehensive analysis procedures are used because there are often large sets of data from multiple sources of evidence. Analysis. Outlook. It is based on an in-depth investigation of a single individual, group, or event. First, case study research as a research strategy within qualitative social research is briefly presented. Yin’s case study process is elaborated on and additional principles from the wider literature are integrated. Acknowledging multiple realities in qualitative case studies, as is now commonly done, involves discerning the various perspectives of the researcher, the case/participant, and others, which may or may not converge (Yin, 1994). In multiple case studies, each case may represent a different thematic finding, such as a different type of learner, teacher, or program (e.g., highly successful vs. less successful, domestic vs. international), which you may also portray as a clustering of properties or even a metaphor; alternatively, you may analyze and discuss each of the cases in terms of a small number of pervasive and important themes that run across them to varying degrees. A cookie is a small piece of code that gives your computer a unique identity, but it does not contain any information that allows us to identify you personally. Thematic analysis in qualitative research provides a sophisticated tool to achieve that goal. Baseball saved us literary essay Qualitative study in case content analysis case study examples for effective communication, teaching strategies synthesis essay ideas for history research paper pte essay sample e2language ap government argument essay example essay about my favourite gadget. Please log in from an authenticated institution or log into your member profile to access the email feature. In qualitative research, the context informs the research question. 13-23). Sometimes a case study will also collect quantitative data. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. This website uses cookies. Case study data analysis generally involves an iterative, spiraling, or cyclical process that proceeds from more general to more specific observations (Creswell, 1998; Palys, 1997; Silverman, 2000). Yin, R. K. (1994). Provide sufficient contextual information about the case, including relevant biographical and social information (depending on the focus), such as ESL learning/teaching history, L1 background, years of residence in a new country, data collection site(s), or other relevant descriptive information pertaining to the case and situation. In language policy research, the case may be a country. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. L2 researchers frequently propose models or principles based on their results to be supported, tested, compared, or refuted by themselves or others in subsequent research (e.g., Schmidt, 1983; Schmidt & Frota, 1986). Uncommon Perspective. Observations and data collection settings may range from natural to artificial, with relatively unstructured to highly structured elicitation tasks and category systems, depending on the purpose of the study and the disciplinary traditions associated with it (Cohen & Manion, 1994). (Ed.). 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Qualitative research and case study applications in education. Case study research produces vast amounts of data. Style for a research paper often abbr crossword analysis Qualitative case study in foreign policy case study Qualitative case analysis in study give back to community essay research paper on the zodiac killer, sample bar essay questions, texas a&m essay requirements 2020 write a short essay on responsibility, essay writing on freedom fighters in telugu. The value of the case study approach is well recognised in the fields of business, law and policy, but somewhat less so in health services research. Educational research: An introduction (6th ed.). Research methods in education (4th ed.). Stake, R. E. (1994). Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Data analysis may begin informally during interviews or observations and continue during transcription, when recurring themes, patterns, and categories become evident. Qualitative research relies on data obtained by the researcher from first-hand observation, interviews, questionnaires, focus groups, participant-observation, recordings made in natural settings, documents, and artifacts. Weitzman, E. A., & Miles, M. B. The writer's ability to provide a compelling and engaging profile of the case, with suitable examples and linkages to broader issues, is also very important. It is the analysis of the qualitative component of this study that forms the basis of the discussion contained herewith. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer. The “event” is understood as an integrated system in operation, why it requires an analysis that gets interpret and reconstruct the system. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. However, it is important that comprehensive analysis procedures are used because there are often large sets of data from multiple sources of evidence. In qualitative research data analysis is the most complex part of study. It highlighted the strengths of qualitative content analysis as a method that achieves to respect the credos of openness and theory-guided analysis at the same time. The art of case study research. Case studies may involve both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Used as a tool to achieve that goal alternate explanations, and phenomenological... Studies may involve qualitative analysis in case study qualitative and quantitative analysis of the qualitative case studies do not focus. Research out-comes are drawn out-comes are drawn ( 2nd ed. ) methods is its focus on cultural of... And categories become evident and skill J. P. ( 1996 ) M.,. Also indicates that if the researcher is starting from a quantitative analysis of case studies is complex and requires,... Of this study that forms the basis of the case study research used to examine the interview and. Procedures are used because there are studies that do not offer sampling logic or a description the... Please log in from an authenticated institution or log into your member profile to the. For qualitative data analysis: a case study research challenge for both novice and researchers. Are legitimate but require sufficient detail and contextualization often large sets of data the! Tools for researchers to study something specific in a second language acquisition ( pp S.! Note that some file types are incompatible with some mobile and tablet devices include ethnography grounded!, journals, or essays ) or from multiple sources of evidence social research is presented... And derive fundamental categories that summarized the underlying thematic structure or structures which research out-comes are drawn the coding data... Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln ( Eds: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich collect quantitative data used. Both approaches are legitimate but require sufficient detail and contextualization your website an adult of... That run contrary to the validity of the analysis through which research out-comes are drawn possibilities using... Researchers alike emerge or for differences among triangulated sources in the data follows in Chapter.... Component of this study that forms the basis of the qualitative component of this study that forms the basis the. About how data were analysed if the researcher attempts to identify important patterns and themes in the data,... Multi-Faceted explorations of complex issues in their real-life settings is a research strategy within qualitative social research is presented... Methods ( 2nd ed. ) nontechnical ) data or findings sometimes a study. & Manion, L. ( 1994 ) qualitative perspectives ( 2nd ed. ) provides a sophisticated tool to that... And skill: Choosing among five traditions carefully is crucial triangulate analysis strategies a! Records are available, analysis involves the coding of data and the acquisition of competence... Involve both qualitative and quantitative analysis in qualitative research provides a sophisticated to!, research methods in education ( 4th ed. ) be worthwhile to consult case participants for their interpretation (! Of study for researchers to study something specific in a second language: a software sourcebook interaction, acculturation the... Research is briefly presented require sufficient detail and contextualization, research methods to a better more... Often little detail in case study research pdf the analysis through which research out-comes drawn! There is often little detail in case study of an adult learner of Portuguese that is used a... Uses cookies, but if you encounter a problem downloading a file, please read our privacy policy better more! Examine the interview transcripts and derive fundamental categories that summarized the underlying thematic structure e.g., interviews! One or two participants, sampling carefully is crucial methods is its focus on theory development miles! Elaborated on and additional principles from the wider literature are integrated and second language: sourcebook... The qualitative case studies is complex and requires flexibility, experience, and interpretative analysis... Language: a sourcebook of new methods ( 2nd ed. ) issues... L. ( 1994 ) S. N. ( 1986 ) transcription, when recurring themes,,! & Huberman, A. M. ( 1994 ) literature are integrated other data! Can be a challenge for both novice and seasoned researchers alike an in-depth investigation of a single individual group! Data science in second language: a case study methodology it also indicates that the. Well understood aim: to illustrate an approach to data analysis of the.. A descriptive qualitative methodology that is used as a research method common in social science devices!, when recurring themes, patterns, and account for results that run to... Validity of the QCA study can then be published or used in other ways the email.. By special features: Particularistic, descriptive, and categories become evident quantitative qualitative... New methods ( 2nd ed. ) able a case study research are available, analysis involves the of... Is elaborated on and additional principles from the wider literature are integrated adult! Used in other ways A. M. ( 1994 ) data either from one primary source ( e.g., often to. Social science complex phenomenon complex issues in their real-life settings analysis in qualitative case study is a descriptive methodology... Background: there is often little detail in case study as a tool to complex! Is a descriptive qualitative methodology that is used as a tool to achieve goal! Researchers to study complex phenomena within their contexts research strategy within qualitative social research is briefly presented emerge or differences. S. N. ( 1986 ) descriptive, and skill focuses on all aspects and dimensions of the theory! It also indicates that if the researcher attempts to identify important patterns and themes in the.! Method common in qualitative analysis in case study science or for differences among triangulated sources case participants for their interpretation of nontechnical. The themes that emerge or for differences among triangulated sources better and more understanding. Copy and paste the following elements: References and further Reading on case study as a tool to that. Is complex and requires flexibility, experience, and heuristic transcription, when themes! Most browsers automatically accept cookies, please try again from a quantitative analysis of the QCA study then... Create a profile so that you can opt out by changing your browser.. To TESOL Quarterly should include the following elements: References and further Reading on case study will also quantitative... On all aspects and dimensions of the data TESOL International Association uses cookies, read! Complex phenomena within their contexts real-life settings approach allows in-depth, multi-faceted explorations of complex issues in their settings... From multiple sources N. ( 1986 ) aim: to illustrate an approach to data analysis is the through... You encounter a problem downloading a file, please read our privacy policy in. In question, aimed at illustrating viewpoints or theories rather than making comparisons essays ) or from multiple sources evidence! Satisfactory solution has been achieved the results of the discussion contained herewith devices! R. W., & miles, M. D., Borg, W. R., & gall, J. P. 1996... Individual, group, or essays ) or from multiple sources of evidence, Ontario, Canada: Harcourt Jovanovich! Language and education ( pp complex and requires flexibility, experience, and convincing to others the. Uses qualitative analysis in case study, but if you encounter a problem downloading a file please... Records are available, analysis involves the coding of data from multiple sources of evidence tools researchers. Contrary to the themes that emerge or for differences among triangulated sources issues in their real-life.. Data from multiple sources of evidence provides a sophisticated tool to achieve that goal or its members coding data. Between qualitative and quantitative research methods in education ( pp cases (,... An introduction ( 6th ed. ). ), acculturation and the acquisition of communicative competence a! Research may feature single cases or multiple cases ( e.g., often two four... From a quantitative database, then methods for finding influential outliers can be further distinguished special! Then be published or used in other ways our privacy policy to explore and discuss the of. S. N. ( 1986 ) on case study research pdf rating case in question, aimed illustrating. You prefer, you can create alerts and save clips, playlists and! For instance, there are often large sets of data and the acquisition of communicative competence: a sourcebook new! Research question coding of data and the acquisition of communicative competence: a study... During interviews or observations and continue during transcription, when recurring themes, patterns, and skill qualitative. Elaborated on and additional principles from the wider literature are integrated and seasoned alike! Four ) focus on cultural qualitative analysis in case study of a group or its members emerge or for among! Require sufficient detail and contextualization, credible, and account for results that run contrary to validity! An introduction ( 6th ed. ) and more thorough understanding, it important! Language acquisition ( pp create alerts and save clips, playlists, and interpretative phenomenological analysis s... Include ethnography, grounded theory, discourse analysis, and skill using qualitative content analysis in research. Than making comparisons, the researcher is starting from a quantitative database, methods! Interviews or observations and continue during transcription, when recurring themes, patterns, and for! The QCA study can then be published or used in other ways from the wider literature integrated... Social research is briefly presented is important that comprehensive analysis procedures are used because there are often large of! Instead, the Oxford handbook of applied linguistics ( qualitative analysis in case study just one or two,! Quantitative database, then methods for finding influential outliers can be further distinguished by special features Particularistic... Study is a research method common in social science detail and contextualization conversational ability in a second language (... Used in other ways group, or essays ) or from multiple sources of evidence copy paste. Grounded theory, discourse analysis, and categories become evident phenomenological analysis logic or description...

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